and qualified; and the legislature may, from time to time, increase or diminish the number of justices of the peace and constables to be elected in the several wards and election districts, as the wants and interests of the people may require. They shall be, by virtue of their offices, conservators of the peace in the said counties and city respectively, and shall have such duties and compensation as now exist, or may be provided for by law. In the event of a vacancy in the office of a justice of the peace, the governor shall appoint a person to serve as justice of the peace, until the next regular election of said officers, and in case of a vacancy in the office of constable, the county commissioners of the county, in which a vacancy may occur, or the mayor and city council of Baltimore, as the case may be, shall appoint a person to serve as constable until the next regular election thereafter for said officers. An appeal shall lie in all civil cases from the judgment of a justice of the peace to the circuit court, or, to the court of common pleas of Baltimore city, as the case way be, and on all such appeals, either party shall be entitled to a trial by jury, according to the laws now existing, or which way be hereafter enacted. And the mayor and city council may provide, by ordinance, from time to time, for the creation and government of such temporary additional police, as they may deem necessary to preserve the public peace.
45. - 15. No judge shall sit in any case wherein he may be interested, or where either of the parties may be connected with him by affinity or consan-guinity, within such degrees as may be prescribed by law, or where he shall have been of counsel in the case and whenever any of the judges of the circuit courts, or of the courts for Baltimore city, shall be thus disqualified, or whenever, by reason of sickness, or any other cause, the said judges, or any of them, may be unable to sit in any cause, the parties may, by consent, appoint a proper person to try the said cause, or the judges, or any of them, shall do so when directed by law.
46. - 16. The present chancellor and the register in chancery, and, in the event of any vacancy in their respective offices, their successors in office respectively, who are to be appointed as at present, by the governor and senate, shall continue in office, with the powers and compensation as at present established, until the expiration of two years after the adoption of this constitution by the people, and until the, end of the session of the legislature next thereafter, after which the said offices of chancellor and register shall be abolished. The legislature shall, in the mean time, provide by law for the recording, safe-keeping, or other disposition, of the records, decrees and other proceedings of the court of chancery, and for the copying and attestation thereof, and for the custody and use of the great seal of the state, when required, after the expiration of the said two years, and for transmitting to the said counties, and to the city of Baltimore, all the cases and proceedings in said court then undisposed of and unfinished, in such manner, and under such regulations as may be deemed necessary and proper: Provided, that no new business shall originate in the said court, nor shall any cause be removed to the same from any other court, from and after the ratification of this constitution.
47. - 17. The first election of judges, clerks, registers of wills, and all other officers, whose election by the people is provided for in this article of the constitution, except justices of the peace and constables, shall take place throughout the state on the first Wednesday of November next after the ratification of this constitution by the people.
48. - 18. In case of the death, resignation, removal, or other disqualification of a judge of any of the courts of law, the governor, by and with the advice and consent of the senate, shall thereupon appoint a person, duly quali-fied, to fill said office until the next general election for delegates thereafter; at which time an election shall be held as hereinbefore prescribed, for a judge, who shall hold the said office for ten years, according to the provisions of this constitution.
49. - 19. In case of the death, resignation, removal, or other disqualification of the judge of an orphanscourt, the vacancy shall be filled by the appointment of the governor, by and with the advice and consent of the senate.
50. - 20. Whenever lands lie partly in one county, and partly in another or partly in a county and partly in the city of Baltimore, or whenever persons proper to be made defendants to proceedings in chancery, reside some in one county and some in another, that court shall have jurisdiction in which proceedings shall have been first commenced, subject to such rules, regulations and alterations as may be prescribed by law.
51. - 21. In all suits or actions at law, issues from the orphanscourt or from any court sitting in equity, in petitions for freedom, and in all pre-sentments and indictments now pending, or which may be pending at the time of the adoption of this constitution by the people, or which may hereafter be instituted in any of the courts of law of this state, having jurisdiction thereof, the judge or judges thereof, upon suggestion in writing, if made by the state s attorney, or the prosecutor for the state, or upon suggestion in writing, supported by affidavit, made by any of the parties thereto, or other proper evidence, that a fair and impartial trial cannot be had in the court where such suit or action at law, issues or petitions, or presentment and indictment is depending, shall order and direct the record of proceedings in such suit or action, issues or petitions, presentment or indictment, to be transmitted to the court of any adjoining county; provided, that the removal in all civil causes be confined to an adjoining county within the judicial circuit, except as to the city of Baltimore, where the removal may be to an adjoining county, for trial, which court shall hear and determine the same in like manner as if such suit or action, issues or petitions, presentment or indictment, had been originally instituted therein; and provided also, that such suggestion shall be made as aforesaid, before or during the term in which the issue or issues may be joined in said suit or action, issues or petition, presentment or indictment, and that such further remedy in the premises may be provided by law, as the legislature shall from time to time direct and enact.
52. - 22. All election of judges, and other officers provided for by this constitution, shall be certified, and the returns made by the clerks of the respective counties to the governor, who shall issue commissions to the different persons for the offices to which they shall have been respectively elected; and in all such elections, the person having the greatest number of votes, shall be declared to be elected.
53. - 23. If, in any case of election for judges, clerks of the courts of law and registers of wills, the opposing candidates shall have an equal number of votes, it shall be the duty of the governor to order a new election; and in case of any contested election, the governor shall send the returns to the house of delegates, who shall judge of the election and qualification of the candidates at such election.
Source: Bouviers Law Dictionary 1856 Edition