This word is used in various senses: 1. Sometimes it
signifies a law, as when we say that natural right requires us to keep our
promises, or that it commands restitution, or that it forbids murder. In our
language it is seldom used in this sense. 2. It sometimes means that quality in
our actions by which they are denominated just ones. This is usually
denominated rectitude. 3. It is that quality in a person by which he can do
certain actions, or possess certain things which belong to him by virtue of
some title. In this sense, we use it when we say that a man has a right to his
estate or a right to defend himself. Ruth, Inst. c. 2, §1, 2, 3; Merlin,;
Repert. de Jurisp. mot Droit. See Wood s Inst. 119.
2. In this latter sense alone, will this word be here considered. Right
is the correlative of duty, for, wherever one has a right due to him, some
other must owe him a duty. 1 Toull. n. 96.
3. Rights are perfect and imperfect. When the things which we have a
right to possess or the actions we have a right to do, are or may be fixed and
determinate, the right is a perfect one; but when the thing or the actions are
vague and indeterminate, the right is an imperfect one. If a man demand his
property, which is withheld from him, the right that supports his demand is a
perfect one; because the thing demanded is, or may be fixed and
4. But if a poor man ask relief from those from whom he has reason to
expect it, the right, which supports his petition, is an imperfect one; because
the relief which he expects, is a vague indeterminate, thing. Ruth. Inst. c. 2,
§4; Grot. lib. 1, c. §4.
5. Rights are also absolute and qualified. A man has an absolute right
to recover property which belongs to him; an agent has a qualified right to
recover such property, when it had been entrusted to his care, and which has
been unlawfully taken out of his possession. Vide Trover.
6. Rights might with propriety be also divided into natural and civil
rights but as all the rights which man has received from nature have been
modified and acquired anew from the civil law, it is more proper, when
considering their object, to divide them into political and civil rights.
7. Political rights consist in the power to participate, directly or
indirectly, in the establishment or management of government. These political
rights are fixed by the constitution. Every citizen has the right of voting for
public officers, and of being elected; these are the political rights which the
humblest citizen possesses.
8. Civil rights are those which have no relation to the establishment,
support, or management of the government. These consist in the power of
acquiring and enjoying property, of exercising the paternal and marital powers,
and the like. It will be observed that every one, unless deprived of them by a
sen-tence of civil death, is in the enjoyment of his civil rights, which is not
the case with political rights; for an alien, for example, has no political,
although in the full enjoyment of his civil rights.
9. These latter rights are divided into absolute and relative. The
absolute rights of mankind may be reduced to three principal or primary
articles: the right of personal security, which consists in a person s legal
and uninter-rupted enjoyment of his life, his limbs, his body, his health, and
his reputation; the right of personal liberty, which consists in the power of
locomotion, of changing situation, or removing one s person to whatsoever place
one s inclination may direct, without any restraint, unless by due course of
law; the right of property, which consists in the free use, enjoyment, and
disposal of all his acquisitions, without any control or diminution, save only
by the laws of the land. 1 Bl. 124 to 139.
10. The relative rights are public or private: the first are those which
subsist between the people and the government, as the right of protection on
the part of the people, and the right of allegiance which is due by the people
to the government; the second are the reciprocal rights of hushand and wife,
parent and child, guardian and ward, aud master and servant.
11. Rights are also divided into legal and equitable. The former are
those where the party has the legal title to a thing, and in that case, his
remedy for an infringement of it, is by an action in a court of law. Although
the person holding the legal title may have no actual interest, but hold only
as trustee, the suit must be in his name, and not in general, in that of the
cestui que trust. 1 East, 497 8 T. R. 332; 1 Saund. 158, n. 1; 2 Bing. 20. The
latter, or equitable rights, are those which may be enforced in a court of
equity by the cestui que trust. See, generally, Bouv. Ins t. Index, h. t.
Source: Bouviers Law Dictionary 1856 Edition