international law. Agreements or engagements made by
certain public officers, as generals or admirals, in time of war, either
without author-ity, or by exceeding the limits of authority under which they
purport to be made.
2. Before these conventions can have any binding authority on the
state, they must be confirmed by express or tacit ratification. The former is
given in positive terms and in the usual forms; the latter is justly implied
from the fact of acting under the agreement as if bound by it, and from any
other circumstance from which an assent may be fairly presumed. Wheat. Intern.
Law, pt. 3, c. 2, §3; Grotius, de Jur. Bel. ac Pac. 1. 2, c. 15, §16;
Id. 1. 3, c. 22, 1-3: Vattel, Law of Nat, B. 2, c. 14, 209 -212; Wolff, 1156.
Source: Bouviers Law Dictionary 1856 Edition