I know this is a question that must have been asked but I have yet to find a satisfying answer. What if a third party, someone who is under no charge, is summoned to court to testify in a civil or criminal matter and either agrees to testify but refuses to promise (in any way) to tell the truth, or refuses to testify at all. What would be the consequences for that person and for the other parties concerned? Thanks very much. This question has bugged me for years. Joe (I have enetered Virginia and the USA as pertinent fields as that is my home. I am living for israel. Assuming there is no one answer, I would still like to know if this is considered "settled" law in the states and the United States.